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    The Art of Selective Breeding

    Embarking on the breeding odyssey begins with a clear vision of the traits desired in the progeny. The vast expanse of possible trait combinations can be both exciting and overwhelming. It's crucial to carve out your breeding objectives upfront.

    The table below encapsulates primary traits to consider before setting sail on your breeding voyage. However, a larger genetic pool, while offering more trait variations, also demands meticulous management to retain desired traits across generations.

    Cannabis Traits

    Growth patterns



    Tall or short

    How fast it grows


    Bushy or with few leaves

    Resistance to pests


    Flowering time

    If it grows in hot or cold



    Strength of branches and stem

    Cannabinoid content

    For instance, aspiring for a particular hue in your strain might lead to a trade-off with other cherished traits. Similarly, a quest for high THC or CBD levels should be navigated with an understanding of the intricate interplay between cannabinoids and terpenes, which collectively dictate the ultimate effects of the strain.

    Crafting a breeding blueprint encompassing your trait preferences is imperative. It's equally vital to commence with parent plants that already embody the coveted traits, or be prepared to first breed these traits into your parent stock before advancing to create your new strain.

    The Dance of Traits in Cannabis Breeding

    The realm of genetics operates on a framework of dominance and recessiveness. Dominant traits boldly express themselves even if inherited from just one parent, overshadowing their recessive counterparts. On the flip side, recessive traits shy away, revealing themselves only when contributed by both parents.

    For instance, in a cannabis brood where green buds dominate but a smattering of purple buds emerges, a recessive trait for purple buds is at play. To harness this elusive purple bud trait, breeding two offspring inheriting this trait is key, ensuring a double dose of the recessive gene, and voila, the recessive trait takes the center stage in the ensuing generation.

    Understanding the choreography of dominant and recessive traits, albeit complex, is a cornerstone for successful cannabis breeding. Each parent plant contributes a gene variant (allele) to the offspring, and the duet of these alleles orchestrates the trait's expression. The dominance hierarchy decides which trait takes the limelight - a single copy of a dominant allele suffices for a dominant trait's expression, while a pair of recessive alleles is essential for a recessive trait to make a curtain call.

    Delving into the basics of genetics and inheritance sheds light on this intricate genetic ballet, propelling your cannabis breeding venture onto a path of informed decision-making and desired trait selection.

    The Essence of Complete Dominance

    In the realm of cannabis breeding, complete dominance plays a pivotal role in color expression among other traits. Take for instance a scenario where green bud genes dominate over purple bud genes. Here, the progeny exhibits a clear-cut color identity, either green or purple, without a fusion of hues.

    The illustration below elucidates this genetic narrative. Represented by "G" for the dominant green gene and "P" for the recessive purple gene, the initial generations predominantly sport green buds, despite carrying the purple gene. Yet, as the breeding saga unfolds, the color tableau may transition, revealing the hidden purple essence, a testament to the dynamic interplay of dominant and recessive genes.

    Dominant genes in F1 and F2 generations.


    The Journey from F1 to F2 Generations

    As breeding ventures from the first (F1) to the second (F2) generation, the genetic tale unfolds further. Initially, the offspring shy away from exhibiting purple buds, owing to a single copy of the recessive "P" gene. However, crossbreeding F1 hybrids intertwines more "P" gene copies, ushering in a 25% chance of purple bud expression in the F2 offspring. Yet, the genetic narrative doesn't always follow a straightforward script. Enter incomplete dominance, a scenario where genes form a collaborative ensemble, choreographing new trait expressions, adding a layer of complexity and intrigue to the cannabis breeding saga

    Incomplete Dominance in Action

    Incomplete dominance unveils when no dominant gene reigns over the other; instead, they harmonize to produce a medley of expressions. For instance, crossing cannabis plants with "G" and "P" genes under incomplete dominance won't yield strictly green or purple buds. Instead, a blend materializes, painting the offspring with pink flowers. This genetic phenomenon showcases a collaboration rather than a domination, leading to a novel trait expression, enriching the spectrum of phenotypic outcomes in cannabis breeding.
    Genetic top

    Incomplete dominance in F1 and F2 generations.


    In this scenario, as showcased in the image, the first generation (F1 hybrids) would solely exhibit pink buds since the offspring inherit a single copy of each gene and neither can overpower the other. However, upon interbreeding the first generation, the progeny now houses more copies of both genes (F2 generation, not F3), leading to a 50% probability of pink buds and a 25% chance of either green or purple buds. This illustration, albeit with bud colors, extends to all traits in cannabis, from aroma to effects. To unearth both dominant, recessive, and hidden genes, a preliminary step is to backcross the offspring to their parents, unveiling new traits.

    Backcrossing unfolds a kaleidoscope of trait variations, aiding in discerning the ideal breeding pairs to manifest the desired trait. As you nurture your genetics over time, trait stabilization emerges, enabling a consistent breeding quest for specific traits without retracing steps to the start. Yet, until traits stabilize, the offspring exhibit a plethora of traits, with expressions swaying under the environmental conditions where the cannabis plants thrive.